Art Nouveau was a movement of "Art Deco" that emerged and developed in Europe and America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It involved more than a dozen countries and many fields, from architecture, furniture, products, jewelry, clothing, graphic design, and book illustration to sculpture and painting, and lasted for more than ten years, making it a very important formalist movement in the history of design.
Art Nouveau was first started in 1880 and reached its peak between 1890 and 1910. The name Art Nouveau came from a store Samuel Bing opened in Paris called La Maison Art Nouveau, where he displayed products designed in this style. Art Nouveau could be divided into linear and curved, decorative and graphic styles, and is known for its use of smooth, graceful lines, organic shapes, and aesthetically pleasing femininity. This style has influenced architecture, furniture, product, and clothing design, as well as pattern and typography.
Since the Franco-Prussian War, Europe had been at peace for a longer period of time, and the political and economic situation was stable. Many newly independent or unified countries sought to rank among the nations of the world and entered the fiercely competitive international market, which required a new, non-traditional form of artistic expression.
The stability of politics was conducive to the development of ideology and culture, and it also included the development of some artists' ideas.
They began to advocate the philosophy of "holistic art, "abandoned any traditional decorative style, and began to integrate some aspects of architecture, painting, graphic design, product design, and handicrafts with natural forms.
In terms of technology, these designers were no longer satisfied with the existing tools and production materials and began to pursue new materials, and they were very enthusiastic about exploring new structural materials such as cast iron. During the 19th century period, the artists developed an aversion and disgust for industrialization.
1. Emphasizing craftsmanship and opposing industrialization.
2. Opposed to the pretentious Victorian style and various other classical styles, they completely abandoned the traditional decorative style, creating a new natural decorative style.
3. Advocated natural style, emphasizing the absence of straight lines and planes in nature, highlighting the expression of curves and organic forms.
4. Decorated by the influence of oriental styles, especially the Japanese Edo period decorative style and the influence of the Ukiyo-e.
5. To explore the possibilities of artistic expression brought about by new materials and new technologies.
Development and Influence
Art Nouveau emerged after a long gestation period, and many prominent designers believed that British culture paved the way for the Art Nouveau movement. It was the Arts and Crafts movement in Britain that had the most profound influence on the development of Art Nouveau. William Morris placed great emphasis on the coherence and coordination of decorative and structural elements, and to this end, he abandoned the traditional decorative motifs that were passively dependent on existing structures and instead strongly advocated the use of natural motifs for decoration, pioneering a process of refinement from natural forms. The ideology of the Arts and Crafts movement spread widely across Europe and, in pursuit of the ideals of an aesthetic society, shifted to embrace mechanization, culminating in a broad design movement centered on Art Nouveau, which reached its peak between 1890 and 1910.
The Art Nouveau movement was diverse in style and had an impact on all countries. Different countries in Europe had different characteristics and even different names for this movement. The term "Art Nouveau" is a French word, and France, Holland, Belgium, Spain, and Italy used this name as well, while Germany called it Jugendstil, Austria called it Secessionist, and the Scandinavian countries called it "Arts and Crafts Movement."
Representative artists of Art Nouveau include Gustav Klimt, Alphonse Maria Mucha, Aubrey Beardsley, Eugene Grasset, Edvard Munch, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Pierre Bonnard.